The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) successfully launched its first mission to the Sun, Aditya-L1, on September 2, 2023. The launch took place from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.
Aditya-L1 is a solar observatory that will study the Sun’s atmosphere and the effects of solar activity on Earth. It will be placed in a halo orbit around the Sun-Earth Lagrange point 1 (L1), which is a point in space where the gravitational pull of the Sun and Earth are equal. This orbit will allow Aditya-L1 to stay in a fixed position relative to the Sun, while Earth rotates around it.
The spacecraft is equipped with a number of instruments that will study the Sun’s atmosphere, including a spectrograph, a coronagraph, and a magnetometer. The spectrograph will be used to study the Sun’s spectrum, which will provide information about the composition and temperature of the atmosphere. The coronagraph will be used to image the Sun’s corona, which is the outermost layer of the atmosphere. The magnetometer will be used to measure the Sun’s magnetic field.
Aditya-L1 is expected to provide valuable information about the Sun and its effects on Earth. The data collected by the spacecraft will help scientists to understand the Sun’s behavior and to develop better models of solar activity. This information will be important for predicting space weather events, such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections, which can have a significant impact on Earth’s atmosphere and technology.
The success of the Aditya-L1 launch is a major achievement for ISRO and for India. It is a sign of India’s growing capabilities in space exploration and its commitment to scientific research. Aditya-L1 is a pathfinder mission that will pave the way for future solar missions from India.
India has launched its first observation mission to the Sun, just days after the country made history by becoming the first to land near the Moon’s south pole.
Aditya-L1 lifted off from the launch pad at Sriharikota on Saturday at 11:50 India time (06:20 GMT).
It will travel 1.5 million km (932,000 miles) from the Earth – 1% of the Earth-Sun distance.
India’s space agency says it will take four months to travel that far.
India’s first space-based mission to study the solar system’s biggest object is named after Surya – the Hindu god of the Sun, also known as Aditya.
And L1 stands for Lagrange point 1 – the exact place between the Sun and Earth where the Indian spacecraft is heading.
According to the European Space Agency, a Lagrange point is a spot where the gravitational forces of two large objects – such as the Sun and the Earth – cancel each other out, allowing a spacecraft to “hover”.
Once Aditya-L1 reaches this “parking spot”, it will be able to orbit the Sun at the same rate as the Earth. This also means the satellite will require very little fuel to operate.
On Saturday morning, a few thousand people gathered in the viewing gallery set up by the Indian Space Research Agency (Isro) near the launch site to watch the blast-off.
It was also broadcast live on national TV where commentators described it as a “magnificent” launch. Isro scientists said the launch had been successful and its “performance is normal”.
After an hour and four minutes of flight time, Isro declared it “mission successful”.
“Now it will continue on its journey – it’s a very long journey of 135 days, let’s wish it [the] best of luck,” Isro chief Sreedhara Panicker Somanath said.
Project director Nigar Shaji said once Aditya-L1 reaches its destination, it will benefit not only India but the global scientific community.
Aditya-L1 will now travel several times around the Earth before being launched towards L1.
From this vantage position, it will be able to watch the Sun constantly – even when it is hidden during an eclipse – and carry out scientific studies.
Isro has not said how much the mission would cost, but reports in the Indian press put it at 3.78bn rupees ($46m; £36m).
Isro says the orbiter carries seven scientific instruments that will observe and study the solar corona (the outermost layer); the photosphere (the Sun’s surface or the part we see from the Earth) and the chromosphere (a thin layer of plasma that lies between the photosphere and the corona).
The studies will help scientists understand solar activity, such as solar wind and solar flares, and their effect on Earth and near-space weather in real-time.
Former Isro scientist Mylswamy Annadurai says the Sun constantly influences the Earth’s weather through radiation, heat, and flow of particles and magnetic fields. At the same time, he says, it also impacts the space weather.
“Space weather plays a role in how effectively the satellites function. Solar winds or storms can affect the electronics on satellites, and even knock down power grids. But there are gaps in our knowledge of space weather,” Mr Annadurai told the BBC.
India has more than 50 satellites in space and they provide many crucial services to the country, including communication links, data on weather, and help predict pest infestations, droughts, and impending disasters. According to the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA), approximately 10,290 satellites remain in the Earth’s orbit, with nearly 7,800 of them currently operational.
Aditya will help us better understand, and even give us a forewarning, about the star on which our lives depend, Mr Annadurai says.
“Knowing the activities of the Sun such as solar wind or a solar eruption a couple of days ahead will help us move our satellites out of harm’s way. This will help increase the longevity of our satellites in space.”
The mission, he adds, will above all help improve our scientific understanding of the Sun – the 4.5 billion-year-old star that holds our solar system together.
India’s solar mission comes just days after the country successfully landed the world’s first-ever probe near the lunar south pole.
With that, India also became only the fourth country in the world to achieve a soft landing on the Moon, after the US, the former Soviet Union, and China.
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If Aditya-L1 is successful, India will join the select group of countries that are already studying the Sun.
Japan was the first to launch a mission in 1981 to study solar flares and the US space agency Nasa and European Space Agency (ESA) have been watching the Sun since the 1990s.
In February 2020, NASA and ESA jointly launched a Solar Orbiter that is studying the Sun from close quarters and gathering data that, scientists say, will help understand what drives its dynamic behavior.
In 2021, NASA’s newest spacecraft Parker Solar Probe made history by becoming the first to fly through the corona, the outer atmosphere of the Sun.
आदित्य मिशन में l1 क्या है?
आदित्य-एल1 सूर्य के व्यापक अध्ययन के लिए समर्पित उपग्रह है। इसमें 7 अलग-अलग पेलोड विकसित किए गए हैं, जो सभी स्वदेशी रूप से विकसित किए गए हैं। पांच इसरो द्वारा और दो इसरो के सहयोग से भारतीय शैक्षणिक संस्थानों द्वारा। संस्कृत में आदित्य का अर्थ सूर्य है। यहां L1 सूर्य-पृथ्वी प्रणाली के लैग्रेंज प्वाइंट 1 को संदर्भित करता है।
Is Aditya-L1 successful?
“The launch of Aditya-L1 by PSLV-C57 is accomplished successfully. The vehicle has placed the satellite precisely into its intended orbit. India’s first solar observatory has begun its journey to the destination of Sun-Earth L1 point,” said ISRO.
Has Aditya-L1 launched?
India has launched its first observation mission to the Sun, just days after the country made history by becoming the first to land near the Moon’s south pole. Aditya-L1 lifted off from the launch pad at Sriharikota on Saturday at 11:50 India time (06:20 GMT).
What is L1 in Aditya Mission?
Aditya-L1 is a satellite dedicated to the comprehensive study of the Sun. It has 7 distinct payloads developed, all developed indigenously. Five by ISRO and two by Indian academic institutes in collaboration with ISRO. Aditya in Sanskrit means the Sun. L1 here refers to Lagrange Point 1 of the Sun-Earth system.
When L1 will reach Sun?
The Aditya-L1 Mission will not “land” on the Sun as the blazing temperatures would make it an impossible task. It, however, will be placed in the orbit of the Sun-Earth system.
आदित्य एल1 सूर्य तक कैसे पहुंचेगा?
यह 932,000 मील की दूरी तय करेगा और अपने गंतव्य तक पहुंचने के लिए 125 दिन (या चार महीने से अधिक) बिताएगा: पांच लैग्रेंजियन बिंदुओं में से एक के चारों ओर एक प्रभामंडल कक्षा , जो सूर्य और पृथ्वी के बीच स्थित है और अंतरिक्ष यान को बिना किसी बाधा के लगातार सौर गतिविधियों को ट्रैक करने की अनुमति देता है। कोई भी रहस्योद्घाटन और ग्रहण।
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